AMB's Ancestor Chart & DNA
with stars are DNA-proven.)
graphic shows AMB's ancestors, beginning with
parents on the far left, and showing AMB's
three-greats grandparents on the far right.
For more information, see AMB's
database at geneanet.
AMB's ancestor tree is available at ancestry.com
at this link: tree # 84795107.
A star in the person's
rectangle indicates DNA proof (autosomal, Y-DNA,
or both), in addition to standard genealogical
An X in the
person's rectangle indicates that AMB could have
inherited DNA from the X chromosome of that
person. Shared DNA on the X chromosome cannot
rule an ancestor "in," but it can rule
an ancestral line "out." For example,
if AMB shares DNA on the X chromosome with
someone, that person and AMB canNOT share AMB's
paternal grandfather as an ancestor. So, if you
and AMB share on the X chromosome, look at the
chart to see which lines canNOT be shared, and do
not consider those lines as you attempt to find
bene #1: On the above
pedigree, AMB's mother's paternal grandfather
is listed as "Francis Frank Reed."
Everything above him is unknown, and he is a
major mystery. He was a Quebec-born
French-speaking man and is believed to have
been of Irish ancestry.
His story is HERE and HERE.
with this page and with the linked pages is for
AMB's genealogical research and analysis to
survive her death. The attempt is to leave a
message that can be found by AMB's DNA relatives,
even after her death. AMB was born in 1950; no
one lives forever, but the results of research
can live on, to help future genealogical
autosomal DNA testing and Y-DNA testing arrived
after over 25 years of standard genealogical
sleuthing: birth, baptismal, marriage, and death
records created by civil authorities and by
church officials; wills, probates, and estate
settlements; land records (transfers and taxes);
military records (service and pension); school
records; local histories; cemetery records;
funeral home records; burial records; grave
stones; old photos; old letters; old Bibles;
voting records; city directories; old newspaper
stories and obituaries; ship passenger lists;
immigration and naturalization records; fallible
census records; listening to stories told by old
family members. Much of AMB's genealogical
research was done before the internet and the
magic of easily accessible records found online.
Writing to court houses, traveling a few hundred
miles to search through attic archives, and
digging for buried grave stones were common
Then came the
easily accessible records at ancestry.com and
other internet sites, ballooning after 2000.
And then, after
2010, came cheap and easily accessible autosomal
DNA tests and Y-DNA tests. For AMB, the DNA tests
verified the paper documentation. AMB tested with
three testing companies (familyTreeDNA.com,
23andMe.com, and ancestry.com) and uploaded raw
data at gedMatch.com: # M591138.
basics to understand regarding DNA testing:
(1st) Y-DNA testing shows
straight-line paternal information: a man's
father's father's father's father, etc. A Y-DNA
test shows two things: a long string of numbers
showing "STR markers," and a short code
for the paternal haplogroup. A Y-DNA test can
rule out a relationship between a presumed father
and son. Alone, it cannot prove a father/son
(2nd) Autosomal DNA testing
will work, no matter the sex and no matter in
what way the two people are related.
autosomal DNA testing, for two people who are 1st
cousins or closer, the testing companies say that
there is a 100% certainty that testing will show
the relationship. For two people who are 2nd
cousins, there is a greater than 99% chance that
autosomal testing will show the relationship. For
3rd cousins, the relationship will be found in
about 90% of the cases. For 4th cousins, there is
about a 45% chance that the relationship will be
found. At 5th cousins, the chance of there being
any shared DNA found drops to about 15%.
DNA tests determine the percentage of shared DNA.
Here are possible relationships:
50% shared (3,400
centimorgans): parent/child; or
25% shared (1,700
half-siblings; or double first-cousins.
12.5% shared (850
centimorgans): first cousins; or
6.25% shared (425
centimorgans): first cousins
once-removed; or half first-cousins.
3.125% shared (212
centimorgans): second cousins; or
first cousins twice-removed.
1.563% shared (106
centimorgans): second cousins
once-removed; or half second-cousins.
0.781% shared (53
centimorgans): third cousins; or
second cousins twice-removed.
There are variations in relationships, and those
percentages are not exact. The point to
understand is that even 2% of shared DNA would
indicate a reasonably close relationship.
Anything about 5% would be family who, normally,
would have known of each other while growing up.
FATHER'S Y-DNA INFORMATION:
above shows information to 37 markers for AMB's
father's Y-DNA. Information to 67 markers is
known. It is found in kit # 345857
at familyTreeDNA's "Baird
FamilyTreeDNA Y Project Website."
father's paternal haplogroup was L-M20.
There is zero
doubt about the Y-DNA information: Autosomal
testing between AMB and two known 2nd cousins
proved 2nd-cousin relationships. Those two 2nd
cousins are grandchildren of AMB's father's
father's brother. In other words, all three share
Jesse BEARD and Sarah C. HOOKER as
great-grandparents. One of those two 2nd cousins
is a male; in addition to the autosomal DNA test,
he did a Y-DNA test. Thus, AMB's father's Y-DNA
AMB's maternal haplogroup is V.
One's maternal haplogroup comes from one's
mother; it is straight-line maternal information
-- a person's mother's mother's mother's mother,
etc. For genealogists, there is little value in a
mitochondrial DNA test. However, 23andMe provides
maternal haplogroup information with its
Each of the three companies has its own format
for reporting ancestral composition and its own
methods for making best guesses. Additionally, as
more people do autosomal DNA testing, the
companies change, refine, and improve ancestral
composition guestimates. The reports below for
AMB are from early 2019.
Shared DNA proves that two people share
ancestors. The two examples below will show what
proof of shared DNA looks like with autosomal DNA
testing, and it will show how exact the science
is. Both "cousin #1" and "cousin
#2" are AMB's second cousins. AMB and those
two second cousins are great-grandchildren of Jesse
(1867-1939) and Sarah
Catherine Hooker (1871-1952). AMB descends from that
couple's son George Irvin; the second cousins
descend from that couple's son Marvin. Cousin #1
descends from a son of Marvin; cousin #2, from
with second cousin #1:
Cousin #1 total
shared DNA: 309.44 centimorgans:
1 from position 22750400 to 59044077 for a total
of 38.88 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 178361699 to 184694720
for a total of 5.57 cM
chromosome 5 from position 60972692 to 124601508
for a total of 56.96 cM
chromosome 5 from position 178172090 to 180625733
for a total of 5.06 cM
chromosome 6 from position 2799366 to 19277327
for a total of 28.56 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 105919333 to 143820647
for a total of 36.26 cM
chromosome 12 from position 61508412 to 79811443
for a total of 18.65 cM.
chromosome 12 from position 108378411 to
130064899 for a total of 43.09 cM
chromosome 14 from position 18325726 to 42798860
for a total of 31.52 cM.
chromosome 15 from position 24541779 to 33803012
for a total of 13.18 cM.
second cousin #2:
Cousin #2 total
shared DNA: 323.57 centimorgans:
1 from position 23030709 to 59044077 for a total
of 38.46 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 42426416 to 62290352
for a total of 16.74 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 71635056 to 77469545
for a total of 8.73 cM.
chromosome 4 from position 96346892 to 112351238
for a total of 13.18 cM.
chromosome 5 from position 8758837 to 11481508
for a total of 5.97 cM.
chromosome 5 from position 60972692 to 123937399
for a total of 56.31 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 11393983 to 27543003
for a total of 20.77 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 29444126 to 49695186
for a total of 24.18 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 106265726 to 146914378
for a total of 38.74 cM.
chromosome 7 from position 130538121 to 138299077
for a total of 10.22 cM.
chromosome 9 from position 36587 to 3422447 for a
total of 7.28 cM.
chromosome 12 from position 22906265 to 61495890
for a total of 33.76 cM.
chromosome 18 from position 10501383 to 39546701
for a total of 24.62 cM.
chromosome 18 from position 73253766 to 76116152
for a total of 9.4 cM.
In the overlapping graph
below, AMB's matches with cousin #1 are orange;
with cousin #2, blue:
bene #2: In August 2001, when
AMB's mother was 80 years old, she told AMB a
brother Dale has a son. He was born about
the time the school year ended when Dale
had just turned 16. A girl phoned me
while she was still in the hospital and
said, 'I want you to know that you have a
grandson. Dale is the father, but Dale's
name won't be on the birth certificate,
and the baby won't have the Beard name.'
The girl lived in the neighborhood, close
by. I used to know her name, but I can't
remember it any more. When the baby got a
little older, she and the baby lived on
Main Street, south of McKinley, in an
apartment in an old house. I used to
drive Dale there to see his son. When the
baby was about two-and-a-half years old,
the mother told Dale that she no longer
would let Dale see the boy. She said that
she was afraid that the boy would start
asking who Dale was, and she didn't know
what to tell the boy."
My mother further
said that, when she told Dale about the phone
call, he said, "If she says that I'm the
father, I'm the father." He then walked
to the hospital and saw the baby for the
first time. The fact that he walked to the
hospital suggests that the baby was born in
Mishawaka or in South Bend. The hospitals
closest to Normain Heights in 1975 were the
old Mishawaka Hospital (on 4th Street) and
the Osteopathic Hospital. They were about
equidistant from Normain Heights.
Dale was born May 3,
1959. He turned 16 in May 1975. In Mishawaka,
the school year typically ended in the month
of June. Dale lived at 230 Palau, in
Mishawaka, Indiana, in a neighborhood known
as "Normain Heights." Normain
Heights was a distinct neighborhood of 315
houses, arranged over an 80-acre rectangle,
with a park at the south end of the
rectangle. The 230 Palau address was home for
AMB's mother from late 1949 until mid-2006
when she moved to a nursing home. AMB's
conclusion was been that, in 2001 when her
mother used the words "in the
neighborhood," the words meant "in
Normain Heights." However, all that is
known is that she said, "in the
Assuming that what
AMB's mother said in 2001 was correct, the
following deductions can be made:
male child was born in about May or
June of 1975, in Mishawaka or in
mother of the child lived in or near
Normain Heights in about May or June
- It is
reasonable to deduce that she also
lived in that area nine months
after 1975 and before December 1977,
the mother lived on Main Street,
south of McKinley, in an apartment
that was part of an old house. Likely
the address was north of Jefferson.
If the address had been south of
Jefferson, it is likely that AMB's
mother would have identified the
address as "south of
Jefferson" rather than
"south of McKinley."
had brown eyes, and both of Dale's
parents had brown eyes. However, both
of Dale's grandfathers had blue eyes.
In other words, each of Dale's
parents carried a recessive gene for
blue eyes, and Dale could have
carried a hidden recessive gene for
Rh factor was positve.
The attempt here is
to preserve an old woman's fading memory, a
memory that she decided to share in 2001. The
DNA evidence assembled here would provide the
proof. As of the end of 2018, there has been
no proof of the story told by AMB's mother.
with names in red are considered proven
with autosomal DNA matches.
in green are proven with both Y-DNA and
autosomal DNA matches.
Griffith BEARD: b 1918
Indianapolis, IN; d 2006 Mishawaka, St.
Joseph Co., IN.
b 1921 Norman Co., MN; d 2007 Mishawaka,
St. Joseph Co., IN.
Nov. 19, 1949. Four children: born 1950,
1954, 1959, 1964.)
Irvin BEARD: b 1897 Owasco,
Carroll Co., IN; d 1965 Ft. Wayne, Allen
b 1891 Locheil, Benton Co., IN; d 1955
South Bend, St. Joseph Co., IN.
Nov. 5, 1916. Three children: born 1918,
Elmer DOYLE: b 1874 Bixby, Vermilion
Co., IL; d 1958 Niles, Berrien Co., MI.
Louise PAYNE: b 1883 Marysville,
Vermilion Co., IL; d 1953 Niles, Berrien
Dec. 19, 1900. Five children: born 1902,
1904, 1908, 1917, 1921.)
1867 Owasco, Carroll Co., IN; d 1939
Carroll Co., IN.
Catherine HOOKER: b 1871 Carroll Co., IN;
d 1952 Ft. Wayne, Allen Co., IN.
Mullan GRIFFITH: b 1848 IN; d 1900
Locheil, Benton Co., IN.
b 1855 IN; d 1894 Benton Co., IN.
Reed DOYLE (born as Francis REED):
b abt 1835 Quebec, Canada; d 1916
Kankakee Co., IL
. . . NOTE:
The above man lived under a fake name for
the last 50 years of his life.
b 1837 Dayton, Montgomery Co., OH; d 1883
Bixby, Vermilion Co., IL
O'Neal PAYNE: b 1837 Danville,
Vermilion Co., IL; d 1888 Vermilion Co.,
Ann OLIVER: b 1845 Bethlehem,
Albany Co., NY; d 1920 Bismarck,
Vermilion Co., IL
b 1823 Darke Co., OH; d 1904
Owasco, Carroll Co., IN.
1830 Tippecanoe Co., IN; d 1906 Owasco,
Carroll Co., IN.
b 1844 Ihren, Germany; d 1921 Carroll
b 1851 Carroll Co., IN; d 1929 Carroll
Ancil Clark GRIFFITH: b abt 1820 Washington
Co., PA; d 1869 Yuba Co., CA.
Jane KITTS: b 1819 Campbell Co.,
KY; d 1888 Benton Co., IN.
Harrison HUKILL: b 1823 Ripley Co., IN;
IN; d 1871 Knox Co., IN.
b 1833 IN; d 4 Nov 1890 Ripley Co., IN.
REED: b English Ireland (best guess).
25 Agnes _____: b Quebec, Canada (best
Andrew PETERSON: b 1806 ME; d 1877
Vermilion Co., IL.
1810 Tioga Co., PA; d 1849 Vermilion Co.,
PAYNE, Jr.: b 1815 Hamilton Co.,
OH; d 1863 Danville, Vermilion Co., IL.
b 1819 IN; d 1847 Vermilion Co., IL.
30 Abram E. OLIVER:
b abt 1827 Albany Co., NY.
E. SHARP: b abt 1828 Albany Co., NY.
1794 PA; d 1854 Carroll Co., IN.
1801 Monongalia Co., VA; d 1877 Sherman,
Grayson Co., TX.
b 1799 NJ; d 1873 Carroll Co., IN.
Smith JACK: b 1807 Warren Co., OH;
d 1870 Carroll Co., IN. .
36 Johann HOCKERTZ:
b 1814 Ihren, Trier, Germany; d aft 1863
Lafayette, Tippecanoe Co. IN.
37 Margaretha HAMMES: b 1817
Heckhuscheid, Germany; d bef 1860,
probably in Wisconsin.
b 1827 Fairfield Co., OH; d 1881 Carroll
Catharine CRIPE: b 1833 Rossville,
Clinton Co., IN; d 1907 Carroll Co., IN.
40 Alexander M. GRIFFITH: b 1789 PA; d 14
Nov 1821 Washington Co., PA.
41 Sarah Sally DAVIS: b 1801 PA; d 1877
New Philadelphia, Washington Co., IN.
1790 PA; d 1865 Johnson Twp., Ripley Co.,
b 1792 PA; d 1872 IN.
Brevard HUKILL (Judge): b 1797
Winchester, Clark Co., KY; d 1864,
Cumberland Co., IL.
b 1805 Franklin Co., KY; d 1876,
Cumberland Co., IL.
46 John Benedict WISE: b 1803 MD; d 1853
Ripley Co., IN.
47 Nancy McLAUGHLIN: b 1805 KY; d aft 16
52 Abraham PETERSON: b 1769 Winthrop,
Kennebec Co., ME; d aft 1810.
LANE II: b 1787 Wells Twp., Rutland Co.,
Vermont; d bef 1838 Athens Co., OH.
COOK: b PA.
PAYNE, Sr.: b 1776 NY; d 1864
Pontiac, Livingston Co., IL.
1775 Orange Co., NY; d 1855 Vermilion
Spencer O'NEAL: b abt 1792 Bardstown,
Nelson Co., KY; d 1869 Catlin, Vermilion
59 Melinda GRIMES: b abt 1798; m 1818
Switzerland Co., IN; d abt 1839 Vermilion
61 (no information known)
62 (no information known)
63 (no information known)