AMB's Ancestor Chart & DNA Information
(Names with stars are DNA-proven.)

The above graphic shows AMB's ancestors, beginning with parents on the far left, and showing AMB's three-greats grandparents on the far right.
For more information, see
AMB's database at geneanet.
AMB's ancestor tree is available at at this link:
tree # 84795107.

A star in the person's rectangle indicates DNA proof (autosomal, Y-DNA, or both), in addition to standard genealogical documentation.

An X in the person's rectangle indicates that AMB could have inherited DNA from the X chromosome of that person. Shared DNA on the X chromosome cannot rule an ancestor "in," but it can rule an ancestral line "out." For example, if AMB shares DNA on the X chromosome with someone, that person and AMB canNOT share AMB's paternal grandfather as an ancestor. So, if you and AMB share on the X chromosome, look at the chart to see which lines canNOT be shared, and do not consider those lines as you attempt to find the match.

Nota bene #1: On the above pedigree, AMB's mother's paternal grandfather is listed as "Francis Frank Reed." Everything above him is unknown, and he is a major mystery. He was a Quebec-born French-speaking man and is believed to have been of Irish ancestry.
His story is

The attempt with this page and with the linked pages is for AMB's genealogical research and analysis to survive her death. The attempt is to leave a message that can be found by AMB's DNA relatives, even after her death. AMB was born in 1950; no one lives forever, but the results of research can live on, to help future genealogical researchers.

For AMB, autosomal DNA testing and Y-DNA testing arrived after over 25 years of standard genealogical sleuthing: birth, baptismal, marriage, and death records created by civil authorities and by church officials; wills, probates, and estate settlements; land records (transfers and taxes); military records (service and pension); school records; local histories; cemetery records; funeral home records; burial records; grave stones; old photos; old letters; old Bibles; voting records; city directories; old newspaper stories and obituaries; ship passenger lists; immigration and naturalization records; fallible census records; listening to stories told by old family members. Much of AMB's genealogical research was done before the internet and the magic of easily accessible records found online. Writing to court houses, traveling a few hundred miles to search through attic archives, and digging for buried grave stones were common events.

Then came the easily accessible records at and other internet sites, ballooning after 2000.

And then, after 2010, came cheap and easily accessible autosomal DNA tests and Y-DNA tests. For AMB, the DNA tests verified the paper documentation. AMB tested with three testing companies (,, and, and she uploaded raw data at both (# M591138) and

These are basics to understand regarding DNA testing:
(1st) Y-DNA testing shows straight-line paternal information: a man's father's father's father's father, etc. A Y-DNA test shows two things: a long string of numbers showing "STR markers," and a short code for the paternal haplogroup. A Y-DNA test can rule out a relationship between a presumed father and son. Alone, it cannot prove a father/son relationship.
(2nd) Autosomal DNA testing will work, no matter the sex and no matter in what way the two people are related.
(3rd) With autosomal DNA testing, for two people who are 1st cousins or closer, the testing companies say that there is a 100% certainty that testing will show the relationship. For two people who are 2nd cousins, there is a greater than 99% chance that autosomal testing will show the relationship. For 3rd cousins, the relationship will be found in about 90% of the cases. For 4th cousins, there is about a 45% chance that the relationship will be found. At 5th cousins, the chance of there being any shared DNA found drops to about 15%.
(4th) Autosomal DNA tests determine the percentage of shared DNA. Here are possible relationships:
50% shared (3,400 centimorgans): parent/child; or full siblings.
25% shared (1,700 centimorgans): grandparent/grandchild; or aunt-or-uncle/niece-or-nephew; or half-siblings; or double first-cousins.
12.5% shared (850 centimorgans): first cousins; or great-grandparent/great-grandchild; or grandAunt-or-uncle/grandniece-or-nephew; or half-aunt-or-uncle/half-niece-or-nephew.
6.25% shared (425 centimorgans): first cousins once-removed; or half first-cousins.
3.125% shared (212 centimorgans): second cousins; or first cousins twice-removed.
1.563% shared (106 centimorgans): second cousins once-removed; or half second-cousins.
0.781% shared (53 centimorgans): third cousins; or second cousins twice-removed.

There are variations in relationships, and those percentages are not exact. The point to understand is that even 2% of shared DNA would indicate a reasonably close relationship. Anything about 5% would be family who, normally, would have known of each other while growing up.


Y-STR values chart

The chart above shows information to 37 markers for AMB's father's Y-DNA. Information to 67 markers is known. It is found in kit # 345857 at familyTreeDNA's "Baird FamilyTreeDNA Y Project Website."

Additionally, AMB's father's paternal haplogroup was L-M20.

There is zero doubt about the Y-DNA information: Autosomal testing between AMB and two known 2nd cousins proved 2nd-cousin relationships. Those two 2nd cousins are grandchildren of AMB's father's father's brother. In other words, all three share Jesse BEARD and Sarah C. HOOKER as great-grandparents. One of those two 2nd cousins is a male; in addition to the autosomal DNA test, he did a Y-DNA test. Thus, AMB's father's Y-DNA is known.

AMB's maternal haplogroup is V. One's maternal haplogroup comes from one's mother; it is straight-line maternal information -- a person's mother's mother's mother's mother, etc. For genealogists, there is little value in a mitochondrial DNA test. However, 23andMe provides maternal haplogroup information with its autosomal test.

Each of the three companies has its own format for reporting ancestral composition and its own methods for making best guesses. Additionally, as more people do autosomal DNA testing, the companies change, refine, and improve ancestral composition guestimates. The reports below for AMB are from early 2019.

Report from 23andMe:

Report from familyTreeDNA:

Report from

Shared DNA proves that two people share ancestors. The two examples below will show what proof of shared DNA looks like with autosomal DNA testing, and it will show how exact the science is. Both "cousin #1" and "cousin #2" are AMB's second cousins. AMB and those two second cousins are great-grandchildren of
Jesse Beard (1867-1939) and Sarah Catherine Hooker (1871-1952). AMB descends from that couple's son George Irvin; the second cousins descend from that couple's son Marvin. Cousin #1 descends from a son of Marvin; cousin #2, from Marvin's daughter.

Match with second cousin #1:

Cousin #1 total shared DNA: 309.44 centimorgans:
chromosome 1 from position 22750400 to 59044077 for a total of 38.88 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 178361699 to 184694720 for a total of 5.57 cM
chromosome 5 from position 60972692 to 124601508 for a total of 56.96 cM
chromosome 5 from position 178172090 to 180625733 for a total of 5.06 cM
chromosome 6 from position 2799366 to 19277327 for a total of 28.56 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 105919333 to 143820647 for a total of 36.26 cM
chromosome 12 from position 61508412 to 79811443 for a total of 18.65 cM.
chromosome 12 from position 108378411 to 130064899 for a total of 43.09 cM
chromosome 14 from position 18325726 to 42798860 for a total of 31.52 cM.
chromosome 15 from position 24541779 to 33803012 for a total of 13.18 cM.

Match with second cousin #2:

Cousin #2 total shared DNA: 323.57 centimorgans:
chromosome 1 from position 23030709 to 59044077 for a total of 38.46 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 42426416 to 62290352 for a total of 16.74 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 71635056 to 77469545 for a total of 8.73 cM.
chromosome 4 from position 96346892 to 112351238 for a total of 13.18 cM.
chromosome 5 from position 8758837 to 11481508 for a total of 5.97 cM.
chromosome 5 from position 60972692 to 123937399 for a total of 56.31 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 11393983 to 27543003 for a total of 20.77 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 29444126 to 49695186 for a total of 24.18 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 106265726 to 146914378 for a total of 38.74 cM.
chromosome 7 from position 130538121 to 138299077 for a total of 10.22 cM.
chromosome 9 from position 36587 to 3422447 for a total of 7.28 cM.
chromosome 12 from position 22906265 to 61495890 for a total of 33.76 cM.
chromosome 18 from position 10501383 to 39546701 for a total of 24.62 cM.
chromosome 18 from position 73253766 to 76116152 for a total of 9.4 cM.

In the overlapping graph below, AMB's matches with cousin #1 are orange; with cousin #2, blue:

Nota bene #2: In August 2001, when AMB's mother was 80 years old, she told AMB a story:

"Your brother Dale has a son. He was born about the time the school year ended when Dale had just turned 16. A girl phoned me while she was still in the hospital and said, 'I want you to know that you have a grandson. Dale is the father, but Dale's name won't be on the birth certificate, and the baby won't have the Beard name.' The girl lived in the neighborhood, close by. I used to know her name, but I can't remember it any more. When the baby got a little older, she and the baby lived on Main Street, south of McKinley, in an apartment in an old house. I used to drive Dale there to see his son. When the baby was about two-and-a-half years old, the mother told Dale that she no longer would let Dale see the boy. She said that she was afraid that the boy would start asking who Dale was, and she didn't know what to tell the boy."

My mother further said that, when she told Dale about the phone call, he said, "If she says that I'm the father, I'm the father." He then walked to the hospital and saw the baby for the first time. The fact that he walked to the hospital suggests that the baby was born in Mishawaka or in South Bend. The hospitals closest to Normain Heights in 1975 were the old Mishawaka Hospital (on 4th Street) and the Osteopathic Hospital. They were about equidistant from Normain Heights.

Dale was born May 3, 1959. He turned 16 in May 1975. In Mishawaka, the school year typically ended in the month of June. Dale lived at 230 Palau, in Mishawaka, Indiana, in a neighborhood known as "Normain Heights." Normain Heights was a distinct neighborhood of 315 houses, arranged over an 80-acre rectangle, with a park at the south end of the rectangle. The 230 Palau address was home for AMB's mother from late 1949 until mid-2006 when she moved to a nursing home. AMB's conclusion was been that, in 2001 when her mother used the words "in the neighborhood," the words meant "in Normain Heights." However, all that is known is that she said, "in the neighborhood."

Assuming that what AMB's mother said in 2001 was correct, the following deductions can be made:

  • The male child was born in about May or June of 1975, in Mishawaka or in South Bend.
  • The mother of the child lived in or near Normain Heights in about May or June of 1975.
  • It is reasonable to deduce that she also lived in that area nine months earlier.
  • Sometime after 1975 and before December 1977, the mother lived on Main Street, south of McKinley, in an apartment that was part of an old house. Likely the address was north of Jefferson. If the address had been south of Jefferson, it is likely that AMB's mother would have identified the address as "south of Jefferson" rather than "south of McKinley."
  • Dale had brown eyes, and both of Dale's parents had brown eyes. However, both of Dale's grandfathers had blue eyes. In other words, each of Dale's parents carried a recessive gene for blue eyes, and Dale could have carried a hidden recessive gene for blue eyes.
  • Dale's Rh factor was positve.

The attempt here is to preserve an old woman's fading memory, a memory that she decided to share in 2001. The DNA evidence assembled here would provide the proof. As of March 2019, there has been zero proof of the story told by AMB's mother -- absolutely zero.

AMB's ahnentafel
Ancestors with names in red are considered proven with autosomal DNA matches.
Ancestors in green are proven with both Y-DNA and autosomal DNA matches.
2nd GENERATION (parents)
wedding photo, Miles Beard and Elizabeth Ann Doyle
2 Miles Griffith BEARD: b 1918 Indianapolis, IN; d 2006 Mishawaka, St. Joseph Co., IN.
3 Elizabeth Ann DOYLE: b 1921 Norman Co., MN; d 2007 Mishawaka, St. Joseph Co., IN.
(Married Nov. 19, 1949. Four children: born 1950, 1954, 1959, 1964.)
3rd GENERATION (grandparents)
wedding photo, George Irvin Beard and Bernice Griffith
4 George Irvin BEARD: b 1897 Owasco, Carroll Co., IN; d 1965 Ft. Wayne, Allen Co., IN.
5 Bernice GRIFFITH: b 1891 Locheil, Benton Co., IN; d 1955 South Bend, St. Joseph Co., IN.
(Married Nov. 5, 1916. Three children: born 1918, 1920, 1921.)

wedding photo: Itha Elmer Doyle and Mary Payne
Itha Elmer DOYLE: b 1874 Bixby, Vermilion Co., IL; d 1958 Niles, Berrien Co., MI.
Mary Louise PAYNE: b 1883 Marysville, Vermilion Co., IL; d 1953 Niles, Berrien Co., MI.
(Married Dec. 19, 1900. Five children: born 1902, 1904, 1908, 1917, 1921.)
4th GENERATION (great-grandparents)
8 Jesse BEARD: b 1867 Owasco, Carroll Co., IN; d 1939 Carroll Co., IN.
9 Sarah Catherine HOOKER: b 1871 Carroll Co., IN; d 1952 Ft. Wayne, Allen Co., IN.
Henry Mullan GRIFFITH: b 1848 IN; d 1900 Locheil, Benton Co., IN.
Evaline HUKILL: b 1855 IN; d 1894 Benton Co., IN.

Thomas Reed DOYLE (born as Francis REED): b abt 1835 Quebec, Canada; d 1916 Kankakee Co., IL
. . . NOTE: The above man lived under a fake name for the last 50 years of his life.
13 Lucy PETERSON: b 1837 Dayton, Montgomery Co., OH; d 1883 Bixby, Vermilion Co., IL
William O'Neal PAYNE: b 1837 Danville, Vermilion Co., IL; d 1888 Vermilion Co., IL
Elizabeth Ann OLIVER: b 1845 Bethlehem, Albany Co., NY; d 1920 Bismarck, Vermilion Co., IL
5th GENERATION (two-greats grandparents)
16 John M. BEARD: b 1823 Darke Co., OH; d 1904 Owasco, Carroll Co., IN.
17 Rachel SMITH: b 1830 Tippecanoe Co., IN; d 1906 Owasco, Carroll Co., IN.
18 George HOOKER: b 1844 Ihren, Germany; d 1921 Carroll Co., IN.
Elizabeth HUFFORD: b 1851 Carroll Co., IN; d 1929 Carroll Co., IN.
George Ancil Clark GRIFFITH: b abt 1820 Washington Co., PA; d 1869 Yuba Co., CA.
Eliza Jane KITTS: b 1819 Campbell Co., KY; d 1888 Benton Co., IN.
Henry Harrison HUKILL: b 1823 Ripley Co., IN; IN; d 1871 Knox Co., IN.
Mary Ann WISE: b 1833 IN; d 4 Nov 1890 Ripley Co., IN.

24 Robert REED: b English Ireland (best guess).
25 Agnes _____: b Quebec, Canada (best guess).
26 Cornelius Andrew PETERSON: b 1806 ME; d 1877 Vermilion Co., IL.
Cilinda LANE: b 1810 Tioga Co., PA; d 1849 Vermilion Co., IL.
John PAYNE, Jr.: b 1815 Hamilton Co., OH; d 1863 Danville, Vermilion Co., IL.
Virletta O'NEAL: b 1819 IN; d 1847 Vermilion Co., IL.
30 Abram E. OLIVER: b abt 1827 Albany Co., NY.
31 Margaret E. SHARP: b abt 1828 Albany Co., NY.
6th GENERATION (three-greats grandparents)
32 John BEARD: b 1794 PA; d 1854 Carroll Co., IN.
33 Sophia MORE: b 1801 Monongalia Co., VA; d 1877 Sherman, Grayson Co., TX.
34 Richard H. SMITH: b 1799 NJ; d 1873 Carroll Co., IN.
35 Hannah Smith JACK: b 1807 Warren Co., OH; d 1870 Carroll Co., IN. .
36 Johann HOCKERTS: b 1812 Ihren, Trier, Germany; d 1876 Lafayette, Tippecanoe Co. IN.
37 Margaretha HAMMES: b 1817 Heckhuscheid, Germany; d bef 1860, probably in Wisconsin.
Andrew HUFFORD: b 1827 Fairfield Co., OH; d 1881 Carroll Co., IN.
Sarah Catharine CRIPE: b 1833 Rossville, Clinton Co., IN; d 1907 Carroll Co., IN.
40 Alexander M. GRIFFITH: b 1789 PA; d 14 Nov 1821 Washington Co., PA.
41 Sarah Sally DAVIS: b 1801 PA; d 1877 New Philadelphia, Washington Co., IN.
Jacob KITTS: b 1790 PA; d 1865 Johnson Twp., Ripley Co., IN.
Jane HARRIS: b 1792 PA; d 1872 IN.
44 Henry Brevard HUKILL (Judge): b 1797 Winchester, Clark Co., KY; d 1864, Cumberland Co., IL.
Rachel COPELAND: b 1805 Franklin Co., KY; d 1876, Cumberland Co., IL.
46 John Benedict WISE: b 1803 MD; d 1853 Ripley Co., IN.
47 Nancy McLAUGHLIN: b 1805 KY; d aft 16 Jun 1870.

48 (no information known)
49 (no information known)
50 (no information known)
51 (no information known)
52 Abraham PETERSON: b 1769 Winthrop, Kennebec Co., ME; d aft 1810.
53 Susannah _____
54 Allen LANE II: b 1787 Wells Twp., Rutland Co., Vermont; d bef 1838 Athens Co., OH.
55 Hannah COOK: b PA.
John PAYNE, Sr.: b 1776 NY; d 1864 Pontiac, Livingston Co., IL.
57 Hannah EARLE: b 1775 Orange Co., NY; d 1855 Vermilion Co., IL.
58 William Spencer O'NEAL: b abt 1792 Bardstown, Nelson Co., KY; d 1869 Catlin, Vermilion Co., IL.
59 Melinda GRIMES: b abt 1798; m 1818 Switzerland Co., IN; d abt 1839 Vermilion Co., IL.
60 (no information known)
61 (no information known)
62 (no information known)
63 (no information known)

Alice's Interesting Dead Folks

by Alice Marie Beard